Finding Your Hidden Intellectualism: Writing Assignment Inspired by Gerald Graff’s Essay


In this unit, we will look at hobbies and interests through which participants demonstrate “hidden intellectualism,” a term Gerald Graff coined to describe academic skills that participants utilize in traditionally non-academic pursuits, such as sports, cheerleading, comic books, video games, television, music, fashion, dancing, shopping, cooking, and so on. It’s not enough, however, to simply write about interests, student-scholars need to see their hobbies or interests through “academic eyes,” or as Ned Laff puts it, in “a reflective, analytical way, one that sees [their hobbies] as microcosms of what is going on in the wider culture” (qtd. in Graff 64). In other words, students need to show how the hobby relates to larger worlds of academics and culture.

Your Task

Drawing on the in-class essay on Graff’s essay, reading forums, class discussions, and prewriting activities, write a four to six page double-spaced, typed essay in MLA format, describing a hobby or interest through which you or others develop academic skills, such as persuading others, making arguments, supporting an opinion with evidence, responding to the views of others, challenging one’s mind, preparing for college or career, developing important life skills, building morality, strengthening community, and so on. The thesis for this paper should answer the question “How does the hobby develop a specific academic, career, or life skill?”

Note: “Hobby,” “sports,” “academic skills,” “career skills,” “life skills,” “cognitive skills,” “learning,” and “knowledge” are all too general. On the other hand, the skill should be broad enough that you can break it down into sub skills, for instance “reading skills” can be broken down into “vocabulary,” “reading speed,” and “reading comprehension.”

Due Dates
  • Brainstorming of 20-30 hobbies or interests:
    • Worksheet for the thesis and intro / Write the introduction to the Hidden Intellectualism paper to turn in for feedback:
    • Worksheet for the body paragraphs / Write most of first draft. Turn in one body paragraph for feedback.
    • 3 copies of 2nd draft, revised according to feedback on intro and body paragraph and revision checklist:
    • Polished draft, in a folder with revision plan, drafts, worksheets, checklists, and reflection paper:
Assessment Rubric for the “Hidden Intellectualism” Paper
Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
The thesis, which is one arguable idea, names a specific hobby and explains what specific academic, career, or life skill it develops.
Topic sentences connect to the thesis with keywords or synonyms but are more specific and cover all points in the paragraphs.
Every claim is backed up with substantial evidence: examples, facts, anecdotes, and quotes in quotation sandwiches with correct MLA in-text citations.
Evidence and quotes are analyzed and their relevance explained, tying evidence back to topic sentences and the thesis.
The writing is clear, specific, detailed, and relatively free of grammar, punctuation, and spelling mistakes

A superior paper will:

  • have a catchy title.
  • open with an engaging introduction with a hook, an introduction to Gerald Graff and his essay “Hidden Intellectualism,” and a bridge to the thesis, tying Graff’s ideas into the writer’s chosen hobby and skill.
  • include substantial outside research, beyond the basic requirement.
  • integrate multiple perspectives, showing different points of view.
  • give a complex, balanced argument, offering concessions to the other side.
  • analyze quotes for assumptions and implications.
  • demonstrate high levels of critical thinking.
  • have a works cited page in MLA format.
Suggested Structure of the essay

Students don’t have to follow this structure for your essay–good writing does not have to follow a formula–but the format below may help them to present a convincing argument.

Introduction: The introduction should get the attention of the reader with a catchy hook (a surprising fact, a provocative statement, an interesting quote, a rhetorical question, or an anecdote), which leads to an introduction of the issue of your paper, for example, “According to the Literacy Project Foundation, 50% of adult Americans cannot read at an eighth grade level. This fact is shocking, of course, but maybe Americans aren’t reading as well as they should because they haven’t found books that interest them.”

Next, writers should introduce Gerald Graff and one version of his essay “Hidden Intellectualism by telling readers who the writer is and giving a brief summary of the article (one or two detailed lines), then tying this article into the writer’s chosen hobby, “In the article, ‘Hidden Intellectualism,’ Gerald Graff, a professor of . . ., argues . . . Similarly, comics can also help readers develop academic skills.”

Introductions generally end with a thesis, which announces the central argument, a debatable idea, preferably in a “They Say / I Say” format that puts main ideas in conversation with those of others. The thesis for this paper should answer the question “How does the hobby develop a specific academic, career, or life skill?” Students could write, “Although some educators think comic books are a waste of time, comics help develop reading ability.”

Body Paragraphs: For each body paragraph, begin with a topic sentence, which addresses only one narrow aspect of the hobby or interest, such as vocabulary development and explains how it involves specific academic skills, tying back to the thesis with keywords of synonyms. An example would be “Reading comics can help readers develop imagination and creativity.” The paragraph should only be about that one idea. If you switch to another idea, change paragraphs. If the paragraph is going on too long, find a way to split it up.

Support topic sentence by giving quotes, summaries, paraphrases, examples, descriptions, and anecdotes about yourself or others. Wrap up the paragraphs with concluding sentences, which tie the supporting statements back into your central thesis.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, reinforce the target audience and purpose of the essay, give a call to action, or suggest areas for further thought or research.


Readings and Videos for this Unit

Principle essay:

“Finding Your Hidden Intellectualism” by Gerald Graff

Essays that develop the idea of “hidden intellectualism,” that hobbies can develop academic skills.

“Why Sports Matter” by Wilfrid Sheed

“In Defense of Cheering” by Jennie Yabroff

“Superman and Me” by Sherman Alexie

“Movie Therapy: Using Movies for Mental Health” by Denise Mann

“Introduction: The Sleeper Curve” and “Games” from Everything Bad is Good for You by Steven Johnson

Good for a class debate: “Does watching TV make you smarter?”

“Watching TV Makes You Smarter” by Steven Johnson

“Thinking Outside the Idiot Box” by Dana Stevens

TED Talks on the benefits of hobbies, which can be done as a jigsaw viewing

Video: “Your Brain on Video Games” by Daphne Bavelier from TED Talks

Video: “Pixar: The Math Behind the Movies” by Tony DeRose from TedEd

Video: “How Playing an Instrument Benefits the Brain” by Anita Collins from TedEd

Video: “The Value of Travel” by Rick Steves from TEDx

Video: “The Power of Walking and Silence” by John Francis from TEDx

Video: “How Adventure Makes you Smarter, Stronger, and Attractive” by Tyler Tervooren at TEDx

Video: “The Science of Craft, Serendipity and Curiosity” by Andrew Pelling from TEDxURL

Video: “Exercise and the Brain” by Wendy Suzuki from Tedx

Video: “The Math Behind Basketball’s Wildest Moves” by Rajiv Maheswaran from TED Talks

Video: “Golf is the Game of Life” by Alex Jordan at TEDxYouth

Video: “Bicycling Helps Us Care About Our Communities” by Jim Brown from TEDx

Video: “How Playing Sports Benefits Your Body . . . and Your Brain” by Jaspal Ricky Singh from TED Ed

Video: “The Real Importance of Sports” by Sean Adams from TEDx


Worksheet for the Thesis and Introduction

First step, review the writing assignment!

I. Thesis

A. What hobby have you chosen to write about? Note: “Hobbies” and “sports” are too general. Example: comic books.

B. Brainstorm academic, career, or life skills that this hobby helps participants develop, such as persuading others, building morality, team building, etc. Try for 10-15. (Draw on clustergraph.) Examples: vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading speed, knowledge of science, morality, history, psychology, family relations, empathy, imagination, catharsis, critical thinking. Examples: vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading speed, knowledge of science, morality, history, psychology, family relations, empathy, imagination, catharsis, critical thinking.


C. Name one category that includes 2-5 of the skills you have listed above. Sometimes one item will include others. Note: “Academic skills,” “career skills,” “life skills,” “cognitive skills,” “learning,” and “knowledge” are all too general. Example: reading skills.

D. Put the pieces together for the main clause of your thesis.

Hobby + develops / teaches / helps people learn / encourages … + an academic, career or life skill


E. What are some counterarguments against this thesis? Brainstorm 3-5.

F. Drawing on the counter-arguments above, add a concession to your thesis, an acknowledgement of another point of view or an admission that another perspective is partially valid. Use connecting words that show contrast, like “although,” “even though,” “while,” “however,” “nevertheless,” “nonetheless,” or “but.” Example: Although many people think that reading comics is a distraction and a waste of time, comic books can help readers develop reading skills.

G. Rewrite the thesis to make it simpler, clearer, more direct, and more specific. If you listed two or more ideas, unify them to make a single point.

  • Example: Although many traditional educators believe reading comics is a distraction from quality education, graphic novels can develop reading skills.

II. Introduction

  1. Experiments for the introduction:

A. Catchy Title: Try each of these experiments, then choose the best or use a combination.

Example: “Super Reader: Learning to Read with Comics”


Try saying exactly what the paper is about. Example: “Learning to Read with Comics.”

Imagine your paper is a movie, a song, and a rock group. What would the name be for each of these? Movie: “Super Reader” Song: “Comic Extravaganza” Rock group: “Graphic Nova”

B. Hook: Try each of these experiments, then choose the most successful.

Startling statement or shocking statistic: Example: 50% of adult Americans cannot read at an eighth grade level, according to the Literacy Project Foundation.

Quote (from “Hidden Intellectualism,” TED talks on Hobbies, readings, research, famous quote, or saying): Example: “I learned to read with a Superman comic book,” wrote Sherman Alexie in “Superman and Me.”

Anecdote (from “Hidden Intellectualism,” readings, research, personal experience, or experience of someone you know): Example: Sherman Alexie, a native American writer, learned to read with comics. He would look at the pictures, for instance, a panel showing Superman breaking down a door, then he would look at the words and think, “Superman is breaking down the door.” Little by little using this method, Alexie learned to read.


  1. Writing the Introduction

Use the best of your experiments on hooks above, then write the other parts of the intro. Type the intro in MLA format for feedback.

Brief introduction to issue:
Brief introduction to main source material (Gerald Graff’s Hidden Intellectualism”):
Bridge to the thesis (move from Graff’s essay to your own topic):
Thesis statement:

Example Introduction

(Hook) 50% of adult Americans cannot read at an eighth grade level, according to the Literacy Project Foundation. (Brief intro to issue) This fact is shocking, of course, but maybe Americans aren’t reading as well as they should because they haven’t found books that interest them. (Brief intro to main source material) In the essay, “Hidden Intellectualism,” Gerald Graff, a University of Chicago professor of Education and English, that teachers and professors should encourage reading by getting their students to read about topics of interest them. (Bridge to the thesis) Since many students enjoy reading comic books, they can motivate students to read more. (Thesis statement) Although many traditional educators believe that reading comics is a distraction from quality education, graphic novels can develop reading skills.


Worksheet for the Body Paragraphs of the Finding Your Hidden Intellectualism Paper

First step: review the writing assignment!

  1. Mapping your argument

In the lefthand column, list the main academic skills you are going to write about in your paper. Shoot for two to five. In the middle column associate them with a particular aspect of the hobby or interest you have chosen, then in the righthand column, tie it into school, job, or daily life.

For example, the lefthand column could be “Pictures illustrate difficult words,” the middle column could be “vocabulary,” and the third column could be “a visual memory of difficult words.”

Main Hobby or Interest Academic Skill Tie into School, Career or Life
Specific aspects of hobby or interest Specific subcategories of academic skill How does this subskill translate to school, job or daily life?


  1. Body Paragraphs: Drawing on the chart above, write topic sentences (T), then find evidence to support the point (E), and explain how the evidence supports your point and thesis (A).

Note: the following is only a suggested structure. Feel free to shape the essay to fit your material.

T: Claim #1: Topic sentence(s) (aspect of hobby, subcategory of academic skill, and tie in to school, career, or daily life):

Example: Pictures in comic books help readers to understand and remember vocabulary by giving them a visual memory of difficult words.”

E: List evidence, examples, anecdotes, statistics, quotes, summaries, paraphrases:

Examples: Jim Dixson, “In Defense of Comics” learned “invulnerable” from superman comics. 3rd grade teacher surprised, higher level word. Maus by Art Spiegelman: liquidate, meshuga, neurotic, caricature, pragmatic . . .

A: Concluding sentence(s) (Show how this skill can be useful in education and careers, or tie the evidence back into the topic sentence or thesis of the paper.):

Example: These examples show that many comics, especially ones on serious themes, can teach complex vocabulary, a necessary element of advanced reading.

Check: Does your topic sentence fit with your main thesis?

Does every piece of evidence fit with the topic sentence?

Do you have sufficient evidence to convince a skeptic of your point?

T: Claim #2: Topic sentence(s):
E: List evidence:
A: Concluding sentence(s):

Check: Does your topic sentence fit with your main thesis?

Does every piece of evidence fit with the topic sentence?

Do you have sufficient evidence to convince a skeptic of your point?

T: Claim #3 (optional): Topic sentence(s):
E: List evidence:
A: Concluding sentence(s):

Check: Does your topic sentence fit with your main thesis?

Does every piece of evidence fit with the topic sentence?

Do you have sufficient evidence to convince a skeptic of your point?

T: Claim #4 (optional): Topic sentence(s):
E: List evidence:
A: Concluding sentence(s):

Check: Does your topic sentence fit with your main thesis?

Does every piece of evidence fit with the topic sentence?

Do you have sufficient evidence to convince a skeptic of your point?

T: Claim #5 (optional): Topic sentence(s):
E: List evidence:
A: Concluding sentence(s):

Check: Does your topic sentence fit with your main thesis?

Does every piece of evidence fit with the topic sentence?

Do you have sufficient evidence to convince a skeptic of your point?

Example Paper

Liya Li

Instructor Ronald Richardson

English 93-001

8 December 2015

Playing Musical Instruments: Improve Learning Efficiency

“Setting my mind on a musical instrument was like falling in love. All the world seemed bright and changed, ” says William Christopher Handy, a famous American blues composer and musician. Yet, some teachers and parents who do not spend time playing musical instruments might consider it as an unnecessary activity to academic success. Because students need to spend time, money and energy, which may distract them from study and so reduce the quality of study. Essentially, while playing musical instruments has many requirements that seems not obviously contributing to academic success, the hidden advantages lead to academic skill improvement. This is not to say that putting effort into practicing instruments is not worthy, but rather that these effort will always be paid. Because playing musical instruments does benefit students with brain training, such as improving memory, multitasking, strengthening reading comprehension skills, and sharpening concentration, which contribute to an essential academic study skill – improving learning efficiency. Even though some people claim that playing musical instruments is worthless, this hobby helps students improve learning efficiency.

For instrumental hobbies, basically, there are two opinions. On the one hand, some parents insist that practicing in music is a waste of time and money. When my younger female cousin Jasmine was 5 years old, she wanted to play the piano. But, her parents were not willing to give her a chance. Why? Parents like my aunt and uncle demonstrate that once their children fall in love with instrumental activities, they have to pay for instruments and learning tuition, which cost much more money than buying study materials. What’s more, they believe that if students don’t have professional-level talent, it is not worth the time to practice because students will not be able to focus on study. And that kind of situation is exactly what parents don’t want to see. At the same time, some educators who are not interested in musical training argue that playing instruments requires too much energy and does not guarantee academic benefits. So, they do not support students who want to practice instruments. According to Anthony Mazzocchi in “Why Students Really Quit Their Musical Instrument (and How Parents Can Prevent It),” many students quit playing instruments due to the lack of support: “Every year almost 100% of public school students begin an instrument through their school’s music program (if a program exists). One or two years later, more than 50% of students quit.” Though not all the quitters give up for getting little support, many students quit music because “teachers don’t create enough performing opportunities during the year” (Mazzocchi). In other word, teachers are not giving enough support to these quitters. Playing musical instruments is a long journey, which is actually a race between talent and effort. So, some educators believe that students spend too much energy to try to cover the shortage of talent and will hence save less energy for study.This opinion also gives the answer to why some teachers prefer students to work more on extra assignments and quizzes than to “waste energy” practicing instruments.

On the other hand, some people, mostly music major students and music players who love playing instruments, claim that it helps a lot in improving intelligence, which indirectly affects their academic study. In “Does Playing An Instrument Make You Smarter,” Nadine Gaab, PhD, from the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience at Boston Children’s, claims that musical training benefits academic progress: “While many schools are cutting music programs and spending more and more time on test preparation, our findings suggest that musical training may actually help to set up children for a better academic future” ( Bergland). His point here is that musical activities train students in a good way, leading to not only instant enjoyment, but also far-reaching benefits. I agree with this opinion because time will tell the hidden magic of music. Also, as Shelley Katsh and Carol Merle-Fishman say in “The Music Within You,” participating in music change lives: “In the wake of music comes growth and energy that can facilitate important change. Even one song can make a difference in your life. Because involvement in music is natural and healthy, when we choose to listen, sing, or play, we choose to grow.” Along with music spreading in brains, students are more likely to “grow”. That is, students can improve themselves by being trained with music. Students choose to do so on their own, and there are four brain training skills also coming forwardly with playing instruments: memorization, multitasking, reading comprehension, and concentration. Let’s see how playing instruments improves students’ abilities of learning efficiently while their brains are being trained by this hobby.

First of all, playing musical instruments helps students strengthen their memory, leading to stronger abilities on remembering information on books so that they can absorb materials fast. In “Can Music Education Enhance Brain Functioning And Academic Learning?”, Lisa Chipongian claims that practicing keyboard instruments helps people memorize more and longer: “The results demonstrated that preschoolers who had weekly keyboard lessons improved their spatial-temporal skills 34 percent more than did those preschoolers who received computer or group singing lessons. Furthermore, the effects lasted more than a day — ‘long-term,’ according to memory researchers.“ People who play keyboard instruments have stronger memory capacity from insisting on this hobby for a while. In order to play music, students have to remember notes, rules, melody, and so on. When they try to recall pieces of music, they keep thinking about what they had learned before; and, keep their brain working to come up with musical materials. The reason is simple: they have to memorize materials accurately in order to play instruments accurately. At those moments that students memorize music again and again, their brains are led to a working circle, being trained. Like what Anita Collins considers in “How Playing An Instrument Benefits Your Brain,” the effects of music are obvious: “…musicians exhibit enhanced memory functions – creating, storing, and retrieving memories more quickly and efficiently.” This opinion means that once students’ brains are trained to be more active, students are more likely to remember fast, absorb fast and finally, learn fast. Therefore, by playing musical instruments, along with brain training, students can improve memory skills, which are necessary and effective to increase academic learning efficiency.

Secondly, while students are practicing a musical instrument, they are also improving multitasking skills by using different parts of their bodies, which helps them save time in managing academic study materials. Here some people may be confused about how could playing musical instruments help students manage complex tasks better at the same time. To be honest, the most obvious evidence to clear this confuse is that students need to control many aspects simultaneously when they play an instrument; and, this activity allows them to be familiar with managing well. For example, while a student is playing the violin, he/she is actually doing different action with different parts of his/her body, such as breathing freely, keeping neck and shoulders in right position, pressing on strings with fingers, carrying the violin and its fiddlestick and switching scales with an arm, reading musical scores, and also, listening to every sound created from the violin. In order to multitask so many aspects in the meanwhile, students have to deal with every little mistake on time and coordinate movements efficiently. Before reacting, students have to draw a picture in mind to plan the next steps. And this action prompts them to build stronger management skills by thinking fast and critically, which also fits in academic learning. Furthermore, what students need to focus on is not only how to make the best  sound, but also how to develop performance level. Once students can balance several complex tasks simultaneously, they are more likely to master the pieces of music; and similarly in academic learning, they gain the abilities to manage study materials efficiently. In short, students can learn efficiently if they practice controlling different physical and mental processes at once by playing musical instruments.

Then, when it comes to the topic of playing musical instruments, reading comprehension skills will be another benefit, which help students understand academic materials easily and well so that they can connect current knowledge with other learning information. In “The effect of piano lessons on the vocabulary and verbal sequencing skills of primary grade students”, which is reprinted as “Music Education Can Help Children Improve Reading Skills” in SAGE Publications/Psychology of Music, Joseph M. Piro and Camilo Ortiz claim that children who participate in musical training show stronger cognitive abilities: “Children exposed to a multi-year programme of music tuition involving training in increasingly complex rhythmic, tonal, and practical skills display superior cognitive performance in reading skills compared with their non-musically trained peers.” Being trained by music, children are more likely to build stronger reading skills and have better comprehension towards complex work. Similar effects go with older students as well. Before playing an musical instrument, students approach to understand pieces of materials and analysis the contents so that they can play well in reality. They have to find ways to understand musical material well. For example, to do some research online, or to ask friends who are majoring in music. Whatever explanation they get from others, they need to go back and read the material again and again with different comprehension by themselves in order to play the music correctly. In the process of understanding musical materials, students’ comprehension systems in their brains are trained to adjust to many various ideas. In other words, they need to connect plenty of information to the aim material, and then form a general sense of their coming playing. By doing so, students are able to improve their comprehension. In sum, playing musical instruments requires well understanding of the material, and, prompts students to have better reading comprehending skills through making connection among diverse information, which can shorten the time used in disabusing.

Furthermore, playing musical instruments does teach students to gather all their energy at once, which is called concentration. And, this concentration helps students ensure a high quality of study. Take my own experience as an example. Since the first day that I touched my first instrument, a violin, in my life, to now, it is been more than 14 years. During the years from 2000 to 2006, I was with my violin everyday. I can still remember before I stepped in violin, I found it hard to concentrate on homework when I was in a noisy environment. But after gaining experience of playing the violin and ukulele, I could focus on my paper more and more during the time that my families were talking and laughing loudly. I was barely distracted by my surroundings! Then, I tried to compare and know deeply why I would be changed by playing musical instruments. Finally, I drew a conclusion that playing musical instruments made me really focus on the only thing, sound. In those moments, I had excellent senses. I gathered all my energy to feel the movements and the sound they formed. When I did so, I was enchanted by the the only world with my violin. I followed every sound. I released the power of music. I adjusted my playing. I considered my next step. I fell in love with every sound that came out right away. I enjoyed it because it gave me a chance to learn how to concentrate on my world. And that concentration is exactly what I need to complete my school work in high quality. Therefore, playing musical instruments helps students to give all attention to their current task, and releases the power of their brain to meet the task, which is also essential in ensuring academic study quality.

But how has playing instruments really changed me? When I think back to my 7 years old self, stood in my bedroom, holding my violin as though I was not preparing for performance or competition, I can see how willing I was to practice playing. At that time, I was too young to understand deeply about why music appeals me so much. Then, from February 2013 to now, I have spent more than 2 years in learning another instrument, ukulele, by myself. Since I started to play the ukulele, I had more senses of how helpful instruments are. I was sure that the appeal came from which playing instruments gave me the abilities to learn fast and achieve my goals well, not only in musical enjoyment, but also in school study. And even until now, if I don’t have enough time to practice instruments several hours per day, I will still spend at least 20 minutes in playing my ukulele. Honestly, I have gained a lot from playing instruments. And I am glad that I am still on my way to learn more and gain more from it.

There is no denying that students need to spend time, money and energy to play instruments; however, doing so increases their memory capacity, helps them to multitask different processes at once, builds reading comprehension skills, and leads to stronger concentration, which are contributing to saving time doing research and ensuring study quality. My point here should interest students who are looking for methods to improve learning efficiency. Beyond this limited audience, however, my point should also speak to anyone who cares about the larger issue of how playing instruments benefits hidden intellectualism. For students, knowing how helpful instruments are can lead them to good use of music; for some educators, understanding what benefits of playing music bring to students can lead them to adjust education plans better; and, for some parents, entering to the musical world with their children can help to better communication between parent-child relationships. Not only students themselves, but also their teachers and parents want to see students study well in school. Therefore, students should play musical instruments and release the power of music to approach efficient study, such as joining instrumental clubs and taking instruments learning courses. Educators and parents should also give students chances and enough support to get into the musical world, such as helping them find musical groups or even playing instruments with them. As it turns out, students who are instrumental players can gain the power of music, and release it to academic study.

Works Cited

“William Christopher Handy.” Xplore Inc, 2015. Web. 9 Dec. 2015. <>.

Mazzocchi, Anthony. “Why Students Really Quit Their Musical Instrument (and How Parents Can Prevent It.” National Association for Music Education. Kristen Rencher Nuss, March 27. 2015. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Bergland, Christopher. “Does Playing An Instrument Make You Smarter.” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, 25 Jun.2014. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Katsh, Shelley, and Carol Merle-Fishman. “The Music Within You.” Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers, 1998. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Chipongian, Lisa. “Can Music Education Enhance Brain Functioning And Academic Learning?” Brain Connection. n.p. 15 May. 2000. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Collins, Anita. “How Playing An Instrument Benefits Your Brain.” Youtube. Youtube, 22 July.2014. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

SAGE Publications/Psychology of Music. “Music Education Can Help Children Improve Reading Skills.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 March 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2015. <>.